Pancreatic pseudocyst is a false fluid-filled cyst that is formed on the pancreas from the collection of the pancreatic tissues, fluids, and necrosis ( dead tissue). A pseudocyst is formed due to pancreatitis, a condition characterized by the inflammation of the pancreas. The inflammation of the pancreas leads to the leak of digestive enzymes that cause the accumulation of the fluids near the pancreas and make it appear like a cyst. Pseudocysts are usually not cancerous. They can be differentiated from true pancreatic cysts based on their open structure and missing of epithelial cell lining that separates them from the nearby organs.
Pancreatic pseudocysts are usually not dangerous, but treatment may be necessary to relieve the pain and spread of infection. They might be life-threatening once ruptured. The factors that cause pancreatitis are also responsible for the formation of pseudocysts, which include alcohol consumption, gallbladder stones, traumatic injury to the pancreas, medicinal toxicity, and surgical complications. People of all age groups have an equal chance of getting affected by the condition, but it is predominant in men than in women.
Sometimes the pseudocysts will not show any signs of their presence and might even resolve on their own. It is recommended for people suffering from pancreatitis to notice the below-mentioned symptoms such as:
A ruptured cyst should be immediately treated as it causes infection and massive bleeding in the stomach.
Pseudocysts are diagnosed with the help of imaging tests such as CT, MRI, and sometimes MRCP (Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography), which provide a detailed view of the pancreas. Also, endoscopic ultrasound is recommended to study the abdomen and surrounding organs. Even tests to analyze the cyst fluids are also done.
The treatment aims to prevent infection, bleeding, and rupture of the cyst. Small pseudocysts are treated by using conservative methods or wait and watch approach is followed. Larger cysts are treated by using nonsurgical methods like endoscopic or external drainage. If the conventional treatments fail to stop the growth, then surgical methods like cystogastrectomy, Cystjejunostomy, Cystduodenostomy are performed based on the location of the pseudocyst, which helps drain the fluid into either stomach or intestine.